General Information of Nepal:

Nepal is a land where nature lovers may revel in a unique Himalayan setting of great beauty, choosing from a variety of ways, suitable to their personal ideals of relaxation, meditation and pleasure. There is no seasonal constraint on traveling in Nepal as all seasons are ideal for traveling. Each has its own unique charm.

Nepal is a land of rare scenic splendor unrivaled in the Himalayas and a blend of ancient history and vibrant cultures. Bordering the Tibetan Plateau, her territory stretches 800km East to West, the world’s highest peaks including Mt. Everest marking her northernmost limits, cascading downwards in a short 200km span through rugged mountains, various bonafide people, cultural diversity, very friendly with religious crossroad of Hinduism and Buddhism, conifer, temperate and tropical forests, terraces of paddy, millet and corn to the low-lying foothills, birth place of Lord Buddha that form the Southern borders where they join with the plains of India.

Fast Facts of Nepal:

Area: 147,181 (143,151 is occupied by land and 4000 sq. km is water.)

Government:  Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Capital:   Kathmandu.

National flower: Rhododendron (pic)

National bird: Himalayan Monal (Danphe)

National Animal: Cow

Currency: Nepalese currency (about 107 equals US$1.00)

Monetary unit: 1NRs = 100 paisa

Currency code: Nepalese Rupee (NPR)

Total Population: 29.6 million (2018)

Female: 14,870,577       

Male: 14,634,730

Life Expectancy: 64.94years for men and 67.44 years for women

Literacy Rate: Male: 75.8% Female: 55.1%


Nepal has been always an independent and sovereign country with glorious history, culture, and tradition that dates back to time immemorial. Before the campaign of national unification was launched by King Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Founder of Modern Nepal, Kathmandu Valley was ruled by the Malla Kings, whose contributions to art and culture are indeed great and unique.  In 1768 AD, the Shah dynasty ascended the throne of the unified Kingdom.  Nepal became a federal republic and was formally renamed the ‘Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal’ ending the 200-year-old Shah dynasty. The head of state is President who has a ceremonial role in the government whilst Prime Minister elected by the parliament is the head of government vested with executive powers.

Geography: Located between the Tibetan Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China in the north and, India in the East, West and South. 

The country is divided into three geographical regions.

  • Himalayan Region:
    This region occupies about 15% of the total land area.  The altitude of the region ranges between 4,877m-8848m.  It includes eight of the 14 highest summits in the world, which exceeds an altitude of 8,000 meters including Everest, Annapurna, Dhaulagiri, and others.
  • Mountain Region:
    This region accounts for about 68% of the total land area. It is formed by the Mahabharat range that soars up to 4,877m and the lower Churiya.
  • Terai Region:
    The low-land Terai occupies about 17% of the total land area of the country.

Terrain:   Heavily mountains. 14% of the land is cultivated. 13% is pasture, 32% is a forest. 

Seasons: Mainly, Nepal consists of four main reasons:

September – November is considered an autumn season.

December – February is considered a winter season.

March-May is considered a spring season.

June – August is considered as summer /monsoon season

The ideal season for trekking in Nepal is all year round. During the monsoon period, Mustang, Dolpo, Humla, Jumla, Rara Lake is a perfect destination for trekking.

People:    More than 61 ethnic groups and 70 spoken languages, among them Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Rai, Limbu, Newar, Sherpa, Tharu and Indo-Aryan caste groups of Brahmin and Chhetri are dominant

Language: The official language “Nepali”, is widely spoken in Nepal. But as you travel to the different regions of Nepal, you will find hundreds of local dialects spoken by people from various ethnic groups. There are 123 ethnic languages spoken by people as a mother tongue (first language) in Nepal. Most belong to the Indo-Aryan and Sino-Tibetan language. However, educated people can communicate in English.

Major Ethnic groups: Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8% (2001 census)

Religion:   81.3% of the Nepalese population was Hindu, 9.0% Buddhist, 4.4% Muslim, 3.0% Kirant/Yumaist, 1.42% Christian, and 0.9% followed other or no religion. (2011 census)

Cuisine: Nepalese cuisine encompasses a diverse range of cuisines based upon ethnicity and Nepal’s cultural diversity and geography. Whilst, the staple food dal bhat is eaten throughout Nepal. Dal is a lentil soup and is served over bhat (boiled rice), with tarkari (curried vegetables or meat) together with pickles (spicy condiment made from fresh ingredients). Momo is popular fast food in many areas of Nepal and served as steamed, fried and soup dumpling stuffed with meat or vegetable while Chowmein is a Nepali favorite in modern times based on Chinese-style stir fried noodles. Thus, there are diverse flavors from diverse communities in Nepal

Currency/ Foreign currency exchange: Nepali Rupee notes come in Rs. 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000 denominations. Coins come in Rs. 1, 2, 5 and 10 denominations.

You can exchange your currency into Nepalese rupees at the counter in the airport. You have various options to exchange currency through banks and other authorized foreign exchange counters in Nepal. You can browse Nepal Rastra Bank, the central bank of Nepal’s website for the reference of the exchange rate.

GDP: Nepal’s gross domestic product (GDP) for 2016 was estimated at over $21.4 billion.

GNI per capita: USD 1000 (according to the fiscal year 2017-2018)

Main Exports: Carpets, clothing garments, leather goods, jute goods and handicrafts items.

Industries: Tourism, carpet, textile, small rice, Jute, sugar, and oilseed miles, cigarettes, cement and brick production.

Agriculture products: Rice, Corn, Wheat, Sugarcane, Jute, Root crops, Milk, water

Natural resources: Hydropower, magnificent mountains, copper, cobalt, iron, water

National park:– Shey-Phoksundo national park, Sagarmatha national Park, Rara national park, Chitwan National park, Makalu Barun National park, Langtang national park, Shivapuri national park, Bardia national park, Kanchenjunga national park

World heritage sites: Kathmandu Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Swayambhunath, Boudhanath, Pashupatinath, Changaunarayan, and Lumbini.

Natural world heritage site: Royal Chitwan National park and Sagarmatha national park

Conservation area:-Annapurna conservation area, Manaslu conservation area.

Wildlife reserve: Shukla plant wildlife reserve, Dhorpatan hunting reserve, Koshi Tappu wildlife reserve, Parsa wildlife reserve


Nepal-occupying only 0.1% of the earth- is home to:·

-2% of all the flowering plants in the world;·

-8% of the world’s population of birds (more than 848 species);·

-4% of mammals on earth;·

-11  of the world’s 14 families of butterflies (more than 500 species);·
-600 indigenous plant families;·

-319 species of exotic orchids.

It includes eight of the 14 highest summits in the world which exceeds an altitude of 8,000m including Everest, Annapurna, Dhaulagiri and others.