Official Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Capital: Kathmandu

National flower: Rhododendron (pic)

National bird: Himalayan Monal (Danphe)

National Animal: Cow

Monetary unit: 1NRs = 100 paisa

Currency code: Nepalese Rupee (NPR)

Geographical Location

Due to landlocked country, there is no any direct access to Nepal through water route. Nepal is sandwiched between giant nation Nepal and China. China is located to north while India situated to east, west and south of Nepal. Nepal shares an open border with India. Nepal’s is divided into three geographical regions: flat plains in Terai, lush hills, towering mountains in the mountainous region. Nepal owns eight peaks among the 10 highest peaks in the world.

Area: 147,181 (143,151 is occupied by land and 4000 sq. km is water.)

Major Cities: Kathmandu, Pokhara, Biratnagar                    

Total Population: 28.9 million (CBS 2016)

Female: 13,693,378       

Male: 12,927,431

Life Expectancy: 64.94years for men and 67.44 years for women

Literacy Rate: 65.9%

Caste/Ethnic Groups: 125 (CBS 2011)

People and Religion: Hindu, Buddhist, Islam, Muslim, animism and others religion.

Major Ethnic groups: Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8% (2001 census)

Language: The official language of Nepal is Nepali, formerly called Khaskura then Gorkhali used at government level and administration. But as you travel to the different regions of Nepal, you will find variety in language, culture and lifestyle of people.  There are 123 ethic languages spoken by people as a mother tongue (first language) in Nepal. Most belong to the Indo-Aryan and Sino-Tibetan language. However, educated people can communicate in English.

Cuisine: Dhindo and Gundruk are the national food of Nepal. The staple Nepali food is dal bhat. Dal is a lentil soup, and is served over bhat (boiled rice), with tarkari (curried vegetables) together with pickles (spicy condiment made from fresh ingredients). It comprises of non-vegetarian as well as vegetarian items. Likewise, different ethnicity have their own food. Momo is popular fast food in many area of Nepal and served as steamed, fried and soup dumpling stuffed with  meat or vegetable.

Seasons : Mainly, Nepal consists of four main seasons:

  • September – November is considered as autumn season.
  • December – February is considered as winter season.
  • March – May is considered as spring season.
  • June – August is considered as summer /monsoon season

Due to its diverse geography climate may vary from hot to cold determined by the part of the country you are in and in which season. The temperature in Terai in the South may go above 35 degrees Celsius while in winter ranges from 7 to 23 degree Celsius. The climate in mountainous region in the summer is 20 to 25 degrees whereas in winter it can fall below zero. Valleys like Kathmandu and Pokhara have perfect climate with temperatures ranging between 5-15 degree Celsius in winter and 20-35 during summer. The average rainfall in Nepal is 1600mm though it rains lot in valleys like Pokhara and rain less as we go higher up the mountains

Best Trekking Season The ideal season for trekking is during spring & autumn seasons February to May & September to November .The monsoon seasons are June, July and August. During this period, trekking is possible in the Mustang, Dolpo, Humla, Jumla, Rara Lake of Nepal.

Currency/ Foreign currency exchange: Nepali Rupee notes come in Rs. 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000 denominations. Coins come in Rs. 1, 2, 5 and 10 denominations.

You can exchange your currency in to Nepalese rupees at the counter in airport. You have various options to exchange currency through banks and other authorized foreign exchange counters in Nepal. You can browse Nepal Rastra Bank, the central bank of Nepal’s website for the reference of exchange rate,

GDP: Nepal’s gross domestic product (GDP) for 2012 was estimated at over $17.921 billion.

GNI per capita: USD 730 (latest value for GNI per capita, Atlas method as of 2016)

Natural resources: Hydropower, magnificent mountains, copper, cobalt, iron, water

Vegetation: Nepal comprises some of the most exceptional flora and fauna in the world ranging from sub tropical rain forest to Alpine deserts.

National park:– Shey-Phoksundo national park, Sagarmatha national Park, Rara national park, Chitwan National park, Makalu Barun National park, Langtang national park, Shivapuri national park, Bardia national park, Kanchenjunga national park

World heritage sites: Kathmandu durbar square, Bhaktapur durbar square, Patan durbar square, Swayambhunath, Boudhanath, Pashupatinath, Changaunarayan, and Lumbini.

Natural world heritages site: Royal Chitwan National park and Sagarmatha national park

Conservation area:-Annapurna conservation area, Manasulu conservation area.

Wildlife reserve: Shukla plant wildlife reserve, Dhorpatan hunting reserve, Koshi Tappu wildlife reserve, Parsa wildlife reserve

Popular Trek destination: Everest region, Annapurna region, Langtang region

Highest mountains: Mt. Everest (8,848m), Kanchenjunga (8597m), Lhotse (8511m),Makalu (8481m), Dhaulagiri (8167m), Manaslu (8156m), cho Oyu (8125m), Annapurna I (8091m)

Agriculture products: Rice, Corn, Wheat, Sugarcane, Jute, Root crops, Milk, water,

Main Exports: Carpets, clothing garments, leather goods, jute goods and handicrafts items.

Industries: Tourism, carpet, textile, small rice, Jute, sugar, and oilseed miles, cigarettes, cement and brick production.


Travel and Tourism

To find out more information on travel and Tourism in Nepal please visit the following links:

Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation

Nepal Tourism Board (NTB)

Trekking Agencies’ Association of Nepal (TAAN)

Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA)